Naphthalene Balls

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Description

Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula C10H8 It is the simplest polycyclic nice-smelling hydrocarbon, and is a white (very clear/related to things that look like little pieces of clear glass) solid with a (typical and expected) odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass. As a nice-smelling hydrocarbon, naphthalene’s structure consists of a (joined together/protected by a fuse) pair of benzene rings. It is best known as the main ingredient of traditional mothballs.

Naphthalene is a widely used industrial and household chemical in the form of mothballs . But it has rarely bee an agent of poisoning worldwide . We describe a case of ingestion-al naphthalene poisoning with a good outcome after proper management .

Keyword : Ascorbic acid , Hemolysis , Methemoglobinemia , Methylene blue , N- acetylcysteine , renal replacement therapy

Discussion

Naphthalene mothballs are commonly used in households . It has rarely been an agent of pooisoning world . Severe haemolysis from naphthalene poisoning is rare and can be a challenge to clinicians .

Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with a molecular weight of 128 ( C10H8 ) [2] . The clinical features of naphthalene ingestion are mentioned in [ Table / Fig Р2 ] [ 3 ] . Studies have demonstrated that toxic manifestations of naphthalene may be due  to enhanced production of free oxygen radicals , resulting in lipid per oxidation and deoxyribonucleic acid damage [ 4 ] . Ascorbic acid acts as a free radical scavenger and hence may be useful in this situation [ 5 ] .Haemolysis occurs particularly in patients with G6PD deficiency , who have a low tolerance to oxidative stress . Renal failure as a complication of naphthanlene-induced haemolysis and haemoglobinuria has been reported [ 6 ] .

Specific treatment includes the use of methylene blue and exchange transfusion . Methylene blue increases the rate of conversion of methaemoglobin to haemoglobin by accepting an electron ( in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADPH ] and methaemoglobin reductase , to form leucomethylene blue , which can than donate this electron to reduce methaemoglobin [9 ] .

Conclusion

In summary , naphthalene mothball ingestion can present with prolonged haemolytic anaemia and methaemoglobinaemia . Naphthalene poisoning is uncommon but can prove fatal , especially in patients who are G6PD deficient . But if managed properly , the patient can have a good outcome .

Uses

Naphthalene balls are stored in air-tight bags made of a non-reactive plastic such as polythylene or polypropylene ( other plastics may cause a reaction ) . The clothing protected by their presence must also be enclosed in one of these plastics and must be sealed within it . Otherwise the vapors will tend to escape and will lose the effectiveness¬† . Manufacture’s instructions regularly warn against using mothballs for any purpose other than those specified by the packaging , as such uses are not harmful and noxious , they are also frequently considered illegal .

Health risks

The US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that 1,4-dichlorobenzene “. This has been indicated by animal study has not been done . The National Toxicology Program (NTP), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the state of California consider 1,4-dichlorobenzene a carcinogen .

Alternatives

As discussed in more detail at Tineola bisselliella , alternatives to mothballs to control cloths moths include dry cleaning , freezing , through vacuuming , and washing in hot water . Camphor is also used as a moth repellent , particularly in China . Unlike naphthalene and dichlorobenzene , camphor has medicinal applications and is not regarded as a carcinogen , though it is toxic in large doses.

Pheromone traps are also an effective tool used when attempting to protect valuable clothing .

In popular culture

As a verb, “mothball’ has a metaphorical usage , meaning “to stop work on an idea , plan, or job leaving it in such a way yhat work can continue in the future .

Distributor Requirements

We send distributorship to markets for Naphthalene balls.

Once above products are produced we will send them to distributors house. As soon as the products doesn’t sale the products that are under CNF.

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