Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda (especially in North America and New Zealand) or bicarbonate of soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.[citation needed]

The prefix bi in bicarbonate comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is twice as much carbonate (CO3) per sodium in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) as there is in sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The modern chemical formulas of these compounds express their precise chemical compositions (which were unknown when the names sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate were coined) as sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). These names are unambiguous since sodium always has the +1 oxidation state and carbonate the −2 oxidation state.[citation needed]

Cooking

Leavening

In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. When it reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. The acid-base reaction can be generically represented as follows:[10]

In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. When it reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. The acid-base reaction can be generically represented as follows:[10]

When used this way on its own, without the presence of an acidic component (whether in the batter or by the use of a baking powder containing acid), only half the available CO2 is released (one CO2 molecule is formed for every two equivalents of NaHCO3). Additionally, in the absence of acid, thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate also produces sodium carbonate, which is strongly alkaline and gives the baked product a bitter, “soapy” taste and a yellow color. Since the reaction occurs slowly at room temperature, mixtures (cake batter, etc.) can be allowed to stand without rising until they are heated in the oven.[citation needed]

Baking powder, also sold for cooking, contains around 30% of bicarbonate, and various acidic ingredients which are activated by the addition of water, without the need for additional acids in the cooking medium.[14][15][16] Many forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with calcium acid phosphate, sodium aluminium phosphate, or cream of tartar.[17] Baking soda is alkaline; the acid used in baking powder avoids a metallic taste when the chemical change during baking creates sodium carbonate.[citation needed]

 

Sodium bicarbonate can be an effective way of controlling fungal growth,[20] and in the United States is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency as a biopesticide.[21]

Fungicide and pest control

In cooking, baking soda is primarily used in baking as a leavening agent. When it reacts with acid, carbon dioxide is released, which causes expansion of the batter and forms the characteristic texture and grain in pancakes, cakes, quick breads, soda bread, and other baked and fried foods. The acid-base reaction can be generically represented as follows:[10]

Pyrotechnics

Sodium bicarbonate is one of the main components of the common “black snake” firework. The effect is caused by the thermal decomposition, which produces carbon dioxide gas to produce a long snake-like ash as a combustion product of the other main component, sucrose.[citation needed]

Fire extinguisher

Sodium bicarbonate can be used to extinguish small grease or electrical fires by being thrown over the fire, as heating of sodium bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide.[27] However, it should not be applied to fires in deep fryers; the sudden release of gas may cause the grease to splatter.[27] Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC dry chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the more corrosive diammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkaline nature of sodium bicarbonate makes it the only dry chemical agent, besides Purple-K, that was used in large-scale fire suppression systems installed in commercial kitchens. Because it can act as an alkali, the agent has a mild saponification effect on hot grease, which forms a smothering, soapy foam.[citation needed]

Sodium bicarbonate is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate to make your blood or urine less acidic in certain conditions. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
While sodium bicarbonate is generally not considered to be amongst the most harmful of chemicals, exposure to large amounts may result in some adverse health effects, such as: Coughing and sneezing if a high concentration of dust has been inhaled. Gastrointestinal irritation can occur if large amounts have been …
Bottom Line: Intake of sodium bicarbonate is generally considered safe when taken in the recommended dosages. However, it may cause unpleasant side effects and is not recommended for everyone.
Sodium bicarbonate in baking soda neutralises the stomach acid and relieves the many symptoms of acid reflux and other stomach related issues. It is known to be a natural alkalising agent. This non-toxic substance is used to reduce the effect of acid and inflammation in the body and treat most ailments.
Baking soda is a good treatment for immediate relief from occasional acid reflux. The recommended dosage for adults is 1/2 teaspoon dissolved in a 4-ounce glass of water. It’s best to sip this drink slowly to avoid side effects like gas and diarrhea. You can repeat every two hours.